At the end of the conference, on 1 December 1943, the three heads of state and government conveyed the following military conclusions: Churchill proposed a meeting in London. Stalin insisted on meeting in Tehran, despite the distance Roosevelt and Churchill had to travel. Stalin, who was flying for the first time in his life, arrived first. Roosevelt and Churchill arrived from Cairo where a conference on Japan and Asia was held. It also spared the spectacle of a war-torn Central Europe, divided into Allied Soviet and Western zones of occupation, the displacement of millions of civilian casualties from the resulting war, and the political and ideological confrontations that soon emerged from the 1945 peace that defined the post-war world. It was essentially Stalin`s world, not Roosevelt`s or Churchill`s. There were signs of his coming to Tehran, but it seemed a very distant cry from those intoxicating days of impending victory over the forces of darkness. Finally, Tehran had to confirm Cordell Hull`s promise on his return from Moscow that “there is no longer a need for spheres of influence, alliances, balance of forces.” The Tehran conference took place in November 1943. Tehran is in Iran today. At the time of the Tehran conference, the Second World War was still raging and the Allies` hopes of victory were slim.
That is why most of the discussions at the Tehran conference focused on how to win World War II. At the conference, Churchill, Stalin and Roosevelt also agreed to create the United Nations according to the principles developed at the Moscow conference. This conference would lead to the pooling of experts. An important agreement reached at the Tehran conference was the agreement between Britain and the United States to open a second front in Europe to reduce pressure on the Soviet Union, which was fighting the Nazis on the Eastern Front. A second agreement from Tehran was the support of the Soviet Union in the fight against Japan, but the condition was the successful defeat of Germany first. During the conference, the three heads of state and government coordinated their military strategy against Germany and Japan and made a series of important post-war decisions. The conference`s most notable achievements focused on the next phases of the war against the Axis powers in Europe and Asia. Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin had discussions about the conditions under which the British and Americans finally committed to launchIng Operation Overlord, an invasion of northern France that was to take place until May 1944. The Soviets, who had long pushed the Allies to open a second front, declared themselves ready to launch a new large-scale offensive on the Eastern Front, which would divert German troops from the Allied campaign in northern France. Stalin also agreed on the principle that the Soviet Union would declare war on Japan after an Allies` victory over Germany.
In exchange for a Soviet declaration of war in Japan, Roosevelt recognized Stalin`s claims to the Kuril Islands and the southern half of Sachaline, as well as access to the ice-free ports of Dairen (Dalian) and Port Arthur (Lashun Port) on the Liaodong Peninsula in northern China.