China and India have made their claims by building infrastructure such as roads, telephone lines and airstrips and sending troops on regular patrol. Rajiv Gandhi, Prime Minister of India, visited China in 1988 and accepted a joint working group on borders, which made little visible progress. A 1993 German-Indian agreement established a group for the definition of the LAC; This group has also not made any progress. A 226 agreement reached by the Salin-Indian Agreement established “confidence-building measures” to avoid border conflicts. Although there have often been incidents in which one state has accused the other of incursions that, after the 1998 Indian nuclear test, resulted in tense encounters along the McMahon Line and continue to this day, both sides generally attribute them to differences of opinion of less than one kilometre on the exact location of the LAC.  India views its interpretation of the McMahon Line as a legal national border, but China opposes the Simla Agreements and the McMahon Line, asserting that Tibet is not a sovereign state and therefore does not have the authority to enter into contracts.  Chinese maps show about 65,000 km2 of territory south of the line as part of the Tibet Autonomous Region, known as the Southern Tibetan in China.  During the Chinese-Indian War of 1962, Chinese troops occupied this territory from time to time. China recognizes a real line of control approaching most of the “McMahon Line” in the eastern part of its border with India, according to a diplomatic communication from Prime Minister Zhou Enlai in 1959.  The line is named after Henry McMahon, Foreign Minister of British India and Chief Negotiator of the Congress in Simla. It was signed by McMahon and Lonchen Satra on behalf of the Tibetan government.  It stretches 890 kilometers from Bhutan to the west to 260 km east of the great curve of the Brahmaputra River to the east, largely along the Himalayan ridge.
Simla (with the McMahon Line) was initially rejected by the Indian government as incompatible with the 1907 Anglo-Russian Convention.  This convention was denounced in 1921. After Simla, the McMahon line was forgotten until 1935, when British official Olaf Caroe convinced the government to publish the Simla Convention and use the McMahon line on official maps.  [Unreliable source?] As tensions between India and China continue along the effective line of control (LAC), a look at what the line on the ground means and the differences of opinion on this: not for India. India`s line of claim is the line seen in the official border on maps published by the India Survey, including Aksai Chin and Gilgit-Baltistan. In the case of China, it largely corresponds to its line of claim, but in the eastern sector it claims all of Arunachal Pradesh as Southern Tibet. However, lines of claim are possible when there is a discussion of final international borders and not when it comes to a work limit, the LAC says. In 1993, India and China signed an agreement to ease tensions along their borders and respect the LAC. Three years later, in 1996, the two countries agreed to delineate the LAC and put in place confidence-building measures.
The term “LAC” was legally recognized in the Salino-Indian agreements signed in 1993 and 1996. The 1996 agreement states that “no activity by both parties shall cross the line of effective control.”  However, Clause 6 of the 1993 Agreement on Peacekeeping and Calm along the effective line of control in Indian border areas states that “both parties agree that references to the effective line of control of this agreement do not affect their respective positions on the issue of borders.”  NEFA was renamed Arunachal Pradesh in 1972 – Chinese maps call the territory southern Tibet.